Follow-up 10/28/07: The Cosmic Course on Anger Management
Follow-up 10/31/07: Demeter or Apollyon
Follow Up 11/13/07: Occultation of Mirfak and Antares
New Age Shots and Zeitgeist The Movie
The Slide Show for Comet 8P/Tuttle.
17P/Holmes OUTBURST by Gary W. Kronk

Date: 10/27/2007 12:04:36 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time

Maybe we should let the Light in the Face of Mithras reveal that Perseus is Persia and Persia is Iran. That would reveal an amazing correspondence regarding the upcoming return of Persia to the Lion Kingdom.

First, these head lines.

This image shows that the flare up of 17P/Holmes occurred at the right arm of Perseus. The attempt to cut the strong arm tactics of Iran by the Bush administration may cause Perseus to drop his sword.

A close up over Tehran shows that 17P/Holmes passes through the heart of Perseus on 11/24/07. This suggests that the sanctions will begin to be felt. On 1/23/08 the comet will pass the Eye of the Medusa, which is the mind of Iran and that is the Demon Star, Algol in the black bag. The fact that modern Persia is being run by the Head of the Medusa is well known. They have economic and social goals that are not intended to create a balance with mother nature or civilization. If the Medusa Headed leaders of Iran get their way, they will obliterate the Earth in an attempt to prove that rational man (Mithras) has greater potential for the Will of God than Mother Earth. With the Persians it has always been an attempt to repress all forms of Motherhood. They defeated Itanna and all the Venus oriented goddesses in an attempt to force rational order on the cosmos. This they did while hiding under their own burqas.

The bottom line is that 17P/Holmes is aligned with the need to enlighten the ancient land of Perseus about the needs to balance creed and need.

Will it work?

Did the Israelites negotiate with Egypt?

What is required is an obliteration of the Bull Slayer's brother, Ahriman.

Ahriman (West Asian mythology)

The principle of evil in Persian mythology.

As Angra Mainya, "the destructive spirit", who first introduced death into the world, he led the forces of evil against the host of Spenta Mainya, "the holy spirit", who assisted Ahura Mazdah, "the wise lord"--the final victor of the cosmic struggle."In the beginning," said Zoroaster, "the twin spirits were known as the one good and the other evil, in thought, word, and deed. Between them the wise chose rightly, not so the fools. And when these spirits met they established life and death so that in the end the followers of deceit should meet with the worst existence, but the followers of truth with the wise lord."

Ahura Mazdah told Zoroaster that Angra Mainya had upset his plans for making Persia into a terrestrial paradise. All the creatures of "the wise lord" were created with free-will: both spiritual beings and men. Angra Mainya, the twin brother of "the holy spirit", simply took pleasure in "choosing to do the worst things". To thwart Ahura Mazdah he introduced frost in winter, heat in summer, all manner of diseases, and the other ills that men have to endure. His creation, too, was the dragon Azhi Dahaka, who brought ruin to the earth. When Ahura Mazdah fashioned the stars in heaven, he "sprang into the sky like a snake" and in opposition to those luminaries formed the planets, whose baleful influence then fell across the world. Throughout creation there was a cleavage and antagonism so deep that under the Sassanians (226--652) there arose a myth to soften the dualism. The twin spirits became the offspring of a single pre-existing primeval being, Zurvan Akarana, "infinite time". Because Zurvan had vowed that the firstborn should rule as king and Ahriman "ripped the womb open" in order to claim the title, the evil one was given the kingdom of the world for a limited period. "After nine thousand years," Zurvan insisted, "Ohrmuzd will reign and will do every thing according to his good pleasure."

The chief weapon of Ahriman was az, concupiscence, Zurvan's gift. "By means of his power," the donor remarked, "all that is yours will be devoured, even your own creation.". Ahriman accepted because it was "as his very essence". The demonic Az, a female principle, included more than sexual desire equally it was doubt, a weakening of the intellect. Possibly the idea represents a borrowing from Buddhism, which saw in avidya, "ignorance", and its manifestation, desire, the reason for the endless round of conditioned being. Az was also connected with the Manichaean demon of the same name, "the mother of all evil spirits". In Zoroastrianism, however, the role of woman is by no means clear. Man was almost holy, a creation designed to play the foremost part in the destruction of evil. When Ahriman beheld "the righteous man, he swooned away. For three thousand years he lay in a swoon. . .till the accursed whore" roused him. Jeh, the whore, coveted man and "defiled herself with the destructive spirit" to obtain her desire. But this idea only found expression in late texts and it was generally accepted that woman's role was the propagation of the race.

To understand Iran we must understand the Angel of Death that Iran has worshiped since the Zoroastrians defeated the Babylonians. The Angel of Death is interested in separating good and evil. There in lies the problem with Iran. They cannot see life as the will of God because Knowledge of Good and Evil has caused their loss of Eden. 

Read the whole text on concupiscence and you will begin to understand why Iran "needs" the atomic bomb.

"The primary difference between Catholic and Protestant theology on the issue of concupiscence is that Protestants consider concupiscence to be sinful, whereas Catholics believe it to be highly likely to cause sin, though not sinful in itself."

If they do not get it before the world comes to the realization that they are solely responsible for the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, the world will destroy them. The journey through the Quran is just a diversion of Ahriman Theology. The Quran was written to restore the celestial knowledge of the Persians (Zoroastrianism) without the icons of the heavens. It had been concluded that the evil was coming from perceptions of the icons. But, though they were right about the evil coming from the icons of the heavens, they were wrong about how the evil got into the icons. The evil in the icons of the heavens was caused by the self projections of the Zoroastrians. Alexander stopped the heresy of Persia. The Bush Administration, whether it is aware of it or not, has the fundamental job of turning on the light in the face of Mithras, the godhead of Persia and Iran.

Those who think it is Bush's job to cut down the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil will be sorely mistaken when Iran gets the atom bomb and begins to use it to accomplish the will of Ahriman.
Angra Mainya, the twin brother of "the holy spirit", simply took pleasure in "choosing to do the worst things".

Comet 17P/Holmes flared up on the eve of the Bush administration's announcement that the heart of Iran would be cut out. Their objective is to silence the Medusa once and for all. What Alexander failed to complete led to Islam. The attack on Iran is an attack on the last Axis of Evil, for Iraq, Korea, and less we forget, Libya's Gaddafi, have all been taken down.

The question that must be answered is whether Iran is an axis of evil. It is clear that the Greeks and the Egyptians believed this to be so over 2500 years ago.

What has changed?

Comet 17P/Holmes blew a light in the face of Perseus saying it is time to slay the bull when the White House slammed another door on the Axis of Evil.

To understand the flare up of 17P/Holmes it is necessary to understand the Protestant (Bush) idea of concupiscence and the Muslim idea of concupiscence. These two ideas are not compatible with peaceful coexistence. Bush simply carries the banners of Egypt and Greece. Iran still carries the banner of Angra Mainya. This ancient name for Ahriman is close to its meaning, Anger Mania.

Tehran needs to go into serious counseling regarding anger management.


Follow-up 10/28/07: The Cosmic Course on Anger Management

RADIORBIT 09-17-07 Bruce Raphael and Rush Allen The Lion's Gate DOWNLOAD/LISTEN

Follow-up 10/31/07: Lion's Gate at Demeter or Apollyon?

The Sky 5, Level IV planetarium software indicates nearly identical orbits for the 2007 flare up and the 1892 observations by Holmes

The Sky 5, Level IV Orbit Calculations indicate that the Descending Node was seen in Leo at Regulus,
the Apollyon of Rev. 9:11 in 1892 and 2007. Even more Synchronistic is the indication that the comet was conjunct with Regulus on September 11, 1892 and on September 11, 2009 as it descended beneath the ecliptic plane. The implication is that Comet 17P/Holmes has a very strong correlation with Apollyon in Revelation.

This image shows the seventeen orbits of 17P/Holmes between the Mirfak encounters of 1890 and 2007.
The encounter with Mirfak, the heart of Perseus, only occurs once every 117 years.
Thus, the current flare up is an anniversary associated with Apollyon and Perseus. This is a Gorgon encounter with Mithras.

On October 31, 2007 the two versions of Comet 17P/Holmes by EyeOfSiloam and Kazuo Kinoshita were within 7 seconds of arc.

The Sky 5, Level IV Planetarium Software by Software Bisque shows that the position of 17P/Holmes (EOS) is a full 125 degrees 1 minute and 6 seconds away from Mu Andromeda on November 6, 1892 at 11:31 PM when Holmes first sighted the comet near the star.

According to the historical record provided by GARY W. KRONK'S COMETOGRAPHY, it appears that the accumulated error over 117 years for The Sky 5 software is due to the tug on the comet's orbit by Jupiter and Saturn. Facts that are not in dispute are the current ephemeris of the comet and the original location of the sighting by Holmes. So, how does 17P/Holmes end up in Leo when we project back to 1892 using The Sky 5 when we know that Holmes sighted the comet at the King's Daughter's Gate in Andromeda when Perseus was on the zenith? And, why does the descending node correspond to the location of Regulus on September 11, 1892? It would appear that the King of the Solar System, Jupiter, and the Lord of Time in the Solar System, Saturn, are subject to the ways of Apollyon.

The whole point of this follow-up is to point out the difficulties of correlating any rational theory with cosmic events. Eye witness experience tells us that the comet flares up upon occasion. Intuition suggests that the religion of Mithras may have been derived from the same process by which the Eye Of Siloam story of comet 17P/Holmes was derived. We observe and we rationalize. If comet 17P/Holmes flared up during ancient times, then it is fairly certain that there was more material on the comet and that material would have caused even greater increase in brilliance than what has been witnessed in October 2007. Given the history of the ancient world and their Sacred Science regarding the Word of God in the celestial orbs, we can be sure that such illumination of a comet would not have been ignored. All the astrologers, soothsayers, and priests, would have chimed in on the meaning of the comet in precisely the same manner as the astronomers do today. If they found a meaning as profound as the current orbit between Norma and Ara, they would have memorialized what they saw for the sake of posterity. But, given the propensity of 17P/Holmes to flare up with out the normal solar perihelion encounter, it is feasible that the ancients tracked the comet by its irrational show of brilliance. These irrational shows of brilliance have the same power as the modern mathematical rationalizations of parallel universes. The chance of the illumination being a omen from the Ruler of the Cosmos is more likely than the passing of an astrophysicist through a worm hole as conjured in Contact by Carl Sagan. Sagan's famous quote, "If humans were the only life in the universe it would be a terrible waste of space," plays well with the conjurers of gods and worm holes. It is because of the gift of a vivid imagination that humans can become angels and devils and they need some stable platform upon which to restore reality and sanity. That platform has been their cultural lighthouses and their sacred scripts. Today we "know" that there is no Supreme Being moving the stars and we are degraded to the supposition that there are Aliens and Parallel Universe that are attempting to Contact us. But, we are loath to consider the simple fact that there is a Universal Spirit that uses the cosmic lights to reveal what is in the Cognitive Cosmic Being that sets the stars on their courses. Modern Western Culture deplores the idea that One God is a Universal Being for a simple reason. It desires to control the heavens and the existence of a Universal Master would remove all potential for humans to become the Masters of All. If that is not a dream to be God Like, then there never was a comet called 17P/Holmes and what I saw in my own back yard was an alien from a parallel universe who is just as lost as we are. We desire to contact aliens because our own souls are alien to us.

The Mithraic Mysteries tell the very same story as the current orbit of 17P/Holmes. And there is very high probability that we can trace the appearances of 17P/Holmes all the way back to the Sumerians and their legend of Nibiru. So, is it so unbelievable that the modern Persians would still be dominated by apparitions long forgotten but recorded in sacred script? The facts are obvious. Ancient cultures were defined by their observations of the events witnessed in the heavens. Did that process cease with the condemnation of Socrates to a cocktail of hemlock, or did it slip below the cognitive surface of human awareness when the love of wisdom became rationalized as Socratic philosophy? And what of all the surviving remnants of ancient apparitions recorded in sacred script? Don't they all claim "eye witness" accounts of revelations too profound to be believed? Do our imaginings come from no where, or are they the consequence of parallel universes in the alien consciousness of a Great Spirit? The Great Spirit cannot reveal the answer to that question because to do so would eliminate the very need that gives mortal life its purpose. Free Will is not an option in the processing of the minds of the Children of God. Without it, the Children of God are puppets on a cosmic string. We witnessed the action of Cosmic Intent for 50,000 years and then followed Pythagoras and Socrates in the creation of mathematical theories that indicate that there cannot be Cosmic Intent. This action proves that Free Will is Cosmic Intent, and therefore, Cosmic Intent is what we are. The destination of all rationalizing quests for a Theory of Everything can only be satisfied when Free Will submits to a Universal Intent. This is the action of Shu raising the body of Nut to the stars until she decides she has had enough of the rationalizing of dreams and comes back down to Geb whose hands reveal that Divine Vision leads to Neith as the arms of Love and Understanding. The ancient "Theory of Everything" was called the Creationism. It became so perfectly rational that it cost the believer's their free will. The consequence of the bondage to righteous desire is habitual behavior. Boys who are taught to throw stones at the devil symbolized as an obelisk in a bottomless pit will not need to conjure the flesh pots of America when they strap on jumbo jets and attempt to land them on skyscrapers. This behavior is the consequence of dogma that eliminates Free Will. The elimination of Free Will is contrary to all instinct and experience on Earth and within the Heavenly Lights. We are the children of a Universal Being and we are free to choose love and understanding. But, when we do, we are not separate, we are One.

Finally, how is a country like the United States of America, with laws that forbid conversations on religion in the halls of government and in grammar schools, ever going to resolve the 10,000 year old religious wars of Mesopotamia? Therein is the ultimate omen of comet 17P/Holmes in its enlightenment to brilliance between October 24 and October 30, 2007. Not only are our astronomers bewildered, but our Socratic cultural philosophy requires bewilderment to acknowledged as ignorant superstition. If America is to live up to its tradition of freedom and liberty for all, then the government of America and the public education establishment it supports needs to take the ultimate journey of Revelation and abandon the Harlot of Babylon, which is lust for self righteousness. America must begin to witness the apparitions under the stars the way they actually occur and not the way that ill conceived emotions desire them to be. That, after all, is what religion is all about. We will gain the heavenly field of Demeter if Andromeda is released from the rationalizing bondage to the Hades at Perseus and the oppression of the Medusa at the Lion's Gate. We must capture the head of the Medusa in a living body, or else the words consensus and freedom mean nothing in the Land of Liberty.

Follow Up 11/13/07: Occultations of Mirfak and Antares
from Gary W. Kronk (Kronk Observatory, Illinois, USA)
Additional Images

Copyright © 2007 by Jan Timmermans (Valkenswaard, The Netherlands)
J. Timmermans obtained this image on 2007 November 11 using his 10-inch Meade LX-200, with an f3.3 focal reducer, and an ATK16IC Monochrome Camera. The labels and the solar perimeter were added by EyeOfSiloam.

Jan Timmermans image oriented by The Sky 5 for Valkenswaard, Netherlands.

The Jan Timmermans image oriented by The Sky 5 for Valkenswaard, Netherlands showing the comet's approach to Mirfak.
If the comet grows in size it could cause an occultation of Mirfak. Otherwise it is a Near Comet Experience (NCE) for the heart of Perseus.

Zenith for the photograph by Jan Timmermans is the Phallus of Osiris, the Wailing Wall of the Jews, Al Buraq, and Andromeda's Rock.

Nadir for the photograph by Jan Timmermans is the Phallus of the Beast, Golgotha of the Christians, and the Devil's Obelisk in Mecca..

South for the photograph by Jan Timmermans is Sol-o-Mon, Geb of the Egyptians, the Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea, and the Good Samaritan with the light of First Father in his cup that over floweth..

West for the photograph by Jan Timmermans is the right arm of the Father, as Zeus and Hades align on the night of the occultation of the Moon. This occultation was complete and was centered  forty percent of the way from St. Helena Island and the coast of Brazil over the sub oceanic Atlantic Ridge. On that night, both the Moon and the Sun were under the feet of the Wonder in Heaven.

North for the photograph by Jan Timmermans is the Elysian Field under the feet of the King of Kings and above the Love and Wisdom of a Wonder in the Heavens where the Sun hangs in the balance as Time waits in the Lion's Den for Mars to venture from the Land of the Thinkers.

East for the photograph by Jan Timmermans is the resurrection of Osiris, with Mintaka holding the horizon. This is almost exactly the orientation of the causeway of the pyramid of Minkare at Giza where it represented the dawn of the Chapters of Coming Forth by Day when Horus would return to Earth and rejoin all the gods of the heavens with the moment known as Sep Tepi. When 17P/Holmes conjuncts Mirfak on November 11, 2007, that will be the moment that the Prince of this World begins to see the Light of the World as the comet comes with dimensions approaching those of the Sun and the Moon.

Follow-up 10/28/07: The Cosmic Course on Anger Management

RADIORBIT 09-17-07 Bruce Raphael and Rush Allen The Lion's Gate DOWNLOAD/LISTEN

New Age Shots

The Lion's Gate is the fundamental message of 17P/Holmes. The orbit clearly identifies the gateway of salvation at the ascending node and the perihelion. But, before any salvation can occur there must be a return of Apollyon. Why? Because 2000 years ago the theology of Mithras and Apollo declared the reign of the Invincible Sun. What is that?, you ask. It is a declaration that the Sun is the Center of the World. It is a declaration that the Earth travels around the Sun. It is a repudiation of the Aryan creed that astrology was a fate prediction process. When the ancients realized that the Sun was the Master of the Earth and its place in the heavens could not be conquered by the dreams of human domination, they returned to the Sun Worship culture that the Exodus had run away from. This was the End of the World for the Aryan cultures of Mesopotamia, but they would not stand for some upstarts dedicated to Mithras and Apollo to take control of the seasons. The consequence of the Mesopotamian dream of the trepidation of the equinoxes (constantly within Aries and Libra) tyrannical destruction of divination through sensation (paying attention to the senses).

Listen carefully to the omen of Holmes. It is telling us that we have arrived at the back door of the Zeitgeist of Aries. In order to escape from the Aryan tyranny, we must first acknowledge the Zeitgeist of Pisces. The "time spirit" of Pisces is death and resurrection. We are at the End Times of Death in Pisces. We are now ready to walk through the tomb's door that is the womb of Hathor and return to the Wisdom of the Ancients. The description of this transition as read in the Omen of Holmes like as if it were the magnifying glass of the great detective from London in a sleuthing process. The preliminary images of the Holmes and Chiron messages are available at New Age Shots. You are invited to look through the Lion's Gate and determine if you are ready for the Revelation of the New Testament to become history. The story has played out precisely as the Followers of Mithras, Apollo, Horus, and all the Sun Worshiping cults of the long lost ancient civilizations of Sumer, Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, the Pan Hellenistic Middle East, Rome, and Christendom have predicted. The trepidation of the Mesopotamian Cults of Seth, Zoroaster, and Moses have been proven to be self serving, self focused, and self creating, forms of Cosmic Denial. Not because that was their intent, but because rational domination of the sense kills the sense of things, their spirit.

Comet Holmes had an outburst of illumination to bring the modern cultures of humanity back to the Ball Court of the Mayans and the Elysian Fields of Egypt (lower and upper galactic regions). It is time for all good sons and daughters to come to the aid of their Cosmic Mother in the delivery of their Cosmic Father from her mouth, as the Maya and the Egyptians declared. The EyeOfSiloam will complete this interpretation of the omen of Comet Holmes as time allows. The reader is urged to review Zeitgeist The Movie and listen carefully to the rant against religions in general, and Christianity in particular. The rant does not distort the truth beyond comprehension, but it does miss the point of Sun Worship Cults. Science does not progress in an monotonic climb to cosmic cognition. It always proceeds with arrogant leaps of faith in the current "scientific" perceptions. Religions have been designed since humans first detected that the falsehood of Perseus oriented arrogance would reign in the imagination so that rational decree encompasses verifiable reality. Yet, children, like the producers of Zeitgeist The Movie, fail to realize that they are not the Center of the Universe. They are simply "arrogance incognito" acting as if the dream of reality is all that reality offers because of some temporal rationalization. The Seth like minds of such "scientists" weigh rational understanding on a scale of righteousness for which the rationalization is its own judge. Rational judgment can never provide Synchronicity because Synchronicity is empirical experience. As a result, rationalizing cults that become desynchronized and disoriented stand by their "laws" as a means of order and tyrannical behavior is the result.

When Comet Holmes burst with brilliance in an unpredictable manner, it was reminding the mortals on Earth that we are all subject to a Cosmic Master and his Mistress. These two are the sacred duality that God Almighty cannot deny, the Yang and the Yin. He is Cosmic Intent, and She is Cosmic Substance. The offspring of Cosmic Intent and Cosmic Substance is Cosmic Cognition. Two thousand years ago the viziers realized that Cosmic Consciousness would result in elevating self consciousness to the point where it would attempt to deny Cosmic Cognition its Day In The Sun. In other words, humans could live without awareness of a Universal Intent and remain conscious without and understanding experience. To accomplish this arrogant task the material scientists who followed Pythagoras and Socrates would have to conquer Mother Nature and put her cognitive powers in a black bag, a burqa that contained all awareness that did not fit into the feeble minds of the followers of Pythagoras and Socrates. Comet Holmes is the Light on the Road to Damascus that tells those kings who would return to the Imperishable Stars that reality is a place where dreams do not just come true, rather it is a place where they are fulfilled by Cosmic Intent ordering Cosmic Substance to reveal Cosmic Cognition in the endless stream of Cosmic Consciousness. Consciousness has trumped cognition since the Christ Child of Antinous came down to the equatorial plane of planet Earth. All the events of the New testament record the End of the Age process and they predict that cosmic consciousness would evolve into a materialistic cosmology based upon an ignorant universe in which the only intelligence was that of the rational sciences. As such, the offspring of such a cosmos, though rational, must necessarily be ignorant or the premise of an ignorant cosmos would be disproven. Comet Holmes reveals Cosmic Cognition and that erases the rationalization of cosmic ignorance adhered to over the last 2000 years. Zeitgeist The Movie fails to present the consequence of the "Age of Lies" as the current Generation of Vipers, whose own perceptions are all acquired in Plato's Cave. They know what they know but they are ignorant of themselves

Stay tuned.
New Age Shots the Comet Holmes image preview site.
Zeitgeist The Movie is the official site for the movie.
Zeitgesit The Movie - Google is the entrance to the theater of hate.


Copyright © 2007
SU International.
All rights reserved.

First Posting:
October 28, 2007

Last Update:
November 26, 2007


This comet underwent a huge outburst in brightness on 2007 October 24
See below for details
Past, Present, and Future Orbits by Kazuo Kinoshita

Copyright © 2007 by Gary W. Kronk (Kronk Observatory, Illinois, USA)


E. Holmes (London, England) was a regular observer of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), so he knew the region very well. On the evening of 1892 November 6, with skies that were not very favorable, he finished making a few observations of Jupiter and some double stars with his 32-cm reflector, and then decided to take a quick look at the faint companions of Mu Andromedae and the nearby galaxy M31 before quitting for the night. Upon turning the reflector toward that region, he saw what he thought was M31 enter the field of the finder, but when he looked through the eyepiece he saw something different. Holmes said he "called out involuntarily, 'What is the matter? There is something strange here.' My wife heard me and thought something had happened to the instrument and came to see." The object in the field of Holmes' telescope was a comet with a coma about 5 arc minutes across and with a bright nucleus. The date was then November 6.98 [11/6/1892 11:31:12 PM UTC].

Historical Highlights

  • The comet's perihelion distance of over 2 AU made the initial orbits somewhat discordant, especially in the perihelion date. The first orbit was calculated by H. C. F. Kreutz using positions from November 9, 10, and 11. The resulting perihelion date was 1892 August 16.24. During the next several days, the perihelion date was given as April 19.92 by E. Weiss and April 20.04 by A. Berberich. Using positions obtained through November 17, Kreutz demonstrated the difficulty in determining the orbit, as he gave four parabolic orbits with perihelion dates ranging from February 28.82 to June 7.30 that each fit the available positions in a similar fashion. Prominent astronomers on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean noted something particularly interesting about the orbit of this comet around mid-November.

  • The first elliptical orbits were independently calculated by Kreutz and Searle using positions spanning the period of November 9 to 17. Kreutz gave the perihelion date as June 10.46 and the period as 7.09 years. Searle gave the perihelion date as October 12.48 and the period as 6.14 years. Additional orbits by L. Boss, L. Schulhof, Berberich, V. Cerulli, and J. R. Hind eventually established the perihelion date as June 13 and the period as 6.9 years.

  • The comet had passed perihelion nearly five months before discovery and had passed closest to Earth just a month before. As astronomers would later realize, it was discovered during an apparent outburst in brightness. Nearly every astronomer reported the comet was visible to the naked eye through the first half of November, but few made actual total magnitude estimates. E. E. Barnard (Lick Observatory, California, USA) said the comet "was easily visible to the naked eye, as a small hazy star, and almost exactly as bright as the brightest part" of the galaxy M31 on the 9th. The comet faded throughout the second half of November, but it was still a naked-eye object until the last days of this period.

  • The comet experienced another outburst in brightness around January 16. Kobold noted the comet was visible to the naked eye on January 16.81 and said a telescope revealed a nucleus of magnitude 8 and a coma 41 arc seconds across. At about the same time, J. Palisa (Vienna, Austria) also found the comet shining like a star of magnitude 8, and gave the coma diameter as 20 arc seconds. Observations made on the 17th indicated the comet had not changed in brightness, but exhibited a larger coma than on the previous night. A 30-minute exposure by I. Roberts (England) revealed "a very dense circular nucleus surrounded by symmetrical nebulosity, which gave the comet the appearance of a nebulous star." He measured the coma as 39 arc seconds across and the nuclear condensation as 14 arc seconds across.

  • The comet steadily faded after the mid-January outburst. Its position was measured for the final time on March 13.79, when Palisa found it with the 69-cm refractor and described it as extremely faint. The final observations of the comet were made by H. C. Wilson (Goodsell Observatory, Northfield, Minnesota) on April 4 and Kobold on April 6.9. Wilson observed with a 41-cm refractor and described the comet as "exceedingly faint" with a coma about 2 arc seconds across and "very slight" central condensation. Kobold said it as "extremely faint" and added that it was impossible to measure the position "on this and on several following evenings." Wilson again looked for the comet in the 41-cm refractor on August 16 and September 14, but no trace was found. He took a photograph of the region where the comet was expected to be on 1894 January 12. The exposure was made with the 15-cm camera and the exposure was one hour in duration. Although a slightly oval stain about 20 arc seconds across and with no condensation was seen at the correct spot, He noted it was "so suspiciously like a dirty water stain that we hesitate to say anything about it without verification."

  • Predictions for the 1899 return came from E. Kohlschütter (1896) and H. J. Zwiers (1895, 1897, 1899). Both astronomers made careful investigations of the comet's discovery apparition of 1892-3, but where Kohlschütter did not apply perturbations between that apparition and 1899, Zwiers carefully determined the effects Jupiter and Saturn would have on the comet's motion. The ultimate result was that Kohlschütter predicted a perihelion date of 1899 May 8.51, while Zwiers ultimately predicted it as April 28.17. Zwiers (1899) wrote that the comet would have been favorably situated for recovery during the Spring of 1898 for observers in the Southern Hemisphere though it could have been just out of range of their telescopes. The failure to find the comet made a recovery during the autumn of 1899 very important. The comet was recovered by C. D. Perrine (Lick Observatory, California) with a 91-cm refractor on 1899 June 11.46. His measured position indicated Zwiers' perihelion date required a correction of only +0.43 day. Perrine said the comet was not brighter than magnitude 16. He described it as a "round nebulous mass about 30" in diameter, with only a slight brightening at the center."

  • Zwiers (1906) took 21 positions from the 1899 apparition and determined a refined orbit. He than applied perturbations from Jupiter for the period of 1899 January to 1906 April and predicted the comet would next pass perihelion on 1906 March 14.68.

  • The comet was lost after the 1906 apparition, despite predictions at virtually every return thereafter. By the time of the 1942 return, a rough prediction by J. T. Foxell and K. Pollock noted that recovery seemed doubtful.

  • In the December 1963 issue of the Astronomical Journal B. G. Marsden integrated the motion of comet Holmes from 1899 to 1975 using a high-speed computer. He found that between the comet's last observed appearance in 1906 and the upcoming apparition of 1964, the orbital period should have increased from 6.86 years to 7.35 years, and the perihelion distance should have increased from 2.121 AU to 2.347 AU. The resulting prediction for the comet's next perihelion date was 1964 November 15.36. The comet was recovered by E. Roemer (U. S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff station, Arizona) on 1964 July 16.31. She determined the magnitude as 19.2 and described the comet as very sharply condensed, with only a trace of coma. Additional plates were obtained on July 17.33, which revealed the same physical characteristics. Due to the weakness of the July images, additional confirmation was needed, and Roemer obtained this on September 11.23. The magnitude was determined as 18.7, and the comet was again described as very sharply condensed, with only a trace of coma. The precise positions indicated Marsden's prediction needed to be corrected by only +0.7 day. The comet has been observed at every return since 1964.

  • Apparition of 2007: OUTBURST The comet was observed at about magnitude 14.5 since July and had showed signs of a slow fading; however, very early on the morning of October 24, Juan Antonio HenrÂ’quez Santana (Spain) reported that the comet was much brighter than expected. This was all rapidly confirmed. One comet observer, Bob King (Minnesota, USA), made one of the confirming observations on October 24.17 and gave the magnitude as 7.1. He described it as appearing like a yellowish star. Interestingly, he reobserved the comet on October 24.47 and gave the magnitude as 4.0 with the naked eye!! Seiichi Yoshida (Japan) observed the comet on October 24.55 and gave the naked-eye magnitude as 3.5. Further observations by Yoshida gave the naked-eye magnitude as 3.0 on October 24.63 and 2.8 on October 24.72. Through the end of October, most observers were reporting the comet holding at magnitude 2.6-2.8.
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